Henry Patterson

#13961, b. 21 March 1829, d. 30 May 1867

Individual's Timeline

Birth1829Henry Patterson
Christening21 March 1829Henry Patterson1
Death of Mother1 May 1839Mary Patterson2
Death of Father19 April 1849Jonathan Patterson3
Marriage13 January 1852Henry Patterson4,5
Death30 May 1867Henry Patterson

Primary events

Secondary circumstances

Census details

Some aspects of Henry Patterson's life. Henry has been described as a Parkhurst Boy. Parkhouse was a prison on the Isle of Wight where the very young were interred.

Parkhurst Boys 1842-1862      

Although not officially classed as convicts, a group of convict boys called the Parkhurst Boys were sent to Western Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Victoria and even to Norfolk Island. They had been rehabilitated at Parkhurst Prison and were transported under a similar arrangement to the exiles who began to arrive a few years later. The aim was to apprentice them to local settlers.

In the ten years between 1842 and 1852, just fewer than 1499 boys aged from twelve to eighteen were transported to Australia and New Zealand from Britain's Parkhurst Prison. Parkhurst was designed especially for boys and was built on the Isle of Wight. On December 26, 1838, Robert Woollcombe, the prison governor, arrived at Parkhurst with a team of taskmasters and the first 102 boys.

The prison was enlarged and extended during its time as a juvenile prison and until that time on March 30, 1864, the boys did much of the work as part of their training in carpentry, stonework and ironwork. In all, 4088 boys passed through the Parkhurst system.

Ironically, 1838 also saw a British Parliamentary Committee hand down a report claiming that 'transportation was no deterrent for crime' and with free settlers in Australia beginning to object to the arrival of convicts, new practices were put in place at Parkhurst. It was to train its boys and elevate them to a higher standard than those held in other prisons such as Millbank and Pentonville.
Brushes with the LAW

Transported Age: 18 from Portsmouth to Port Phillip Australia.

From an ancestry.com tree - Henry was the son of Jonathan and Mary, living in one of Great Yarmouth's famous Rows. On the 21/06/1842 he was committed to appear at Great Yarmouth Quarter Sessions accused of stealing a pair of boots, he was 14, he was found guilty and sentenced to 7 years transportation.

After sentencing, he was first admitted to Millbank prison (London) as a transit arrangement before being transferred to Parkhurst prison on 13/9/1842. His gaolers report on admission to the prison stated that he was" bad in every respect", single and could read and write. Later the prison governor commented that his general character and disposition were “steady and industrious, rather dull "he was taught the trades of Cooper and Brickmaker.

He was eventually transported on 10/01/1847 as an exile embarking on the "Thomas Arbuthnot” from Portsmouth, which arrived at Port Phillip (Williamstown) on 4/05/1847. He was granted an immediate conditional pardon and went to work as a shepherd for Mr Brock of Mt Macedon for one year at £20 pa

He married Ann Sloan on 13/01/1852 in Melbourne and they had 8 children.

Henry died 30/05/1867 at the young age of 38 from chronic hepatitis, his wife Ann remarried and died in 1909.
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Punishment meted out to the young -
Punishment for theft

An example of the punishment given to young criminals was reported in January 1846.

Four boys were convicted of theft and given one months imprisonment. At the end of the sentence, they were to be whipped with a birch rod.

The journalist who reported this case wrote:

‘Twenty-eight days and nights of painful apprehension to be followed by what occasions “the utmost horror” is a curious specimen of quarter sessions ‘leniency’. The reporter was making a comment on the fact that the jury had recommended leniency when dealing with the young wrongdoers. The boys lived in very overcrowded areas, which were said to be ‘academies for juvenile convicts’. In other words, the only way of life they were likely to learn was a criminal one (3).
Picking oakum

Once in prison various forms of punishment were available to keep the prisoners occupied.

Many children were made to ‘pick oakum’ for up to five hours a day. This meant ‘the pulling to pieces of old tarry ropes’ (4) which were then used to make new ropes or to cover the planks of wooden ships to make them water tight. This made their hands very sore.
The treadmill

The Treadmill was ‘a big iron frame of steps around a revolving cylinder’. In the early part of the century, prisoners were put on the treadmill for up to six hours a day. It had no useful purpose. It was just monotonous hard work.

In 1843, the Prison Inspectors’ General Survey stated that the treadmill was ‘an improper punishment for females and boys under 14 years of age.
The crank

Until 1865 other forms of hard labour included the crank ‘which was a wheel with a counting device fitted into a box of gravel’. (6)

The prisoner turned the handle for a given number of rotations and this moved the gravel around in the box. This was another useless activity.

In Leicester prison, a certain number of cranks had to be turned before any food or drink was made available. In Birmingham, if the prisoner had not completed the required number he was kept in the crank cell until late in the night. This meant he would miss supper and have no food until the next morning.
Strait jackets

Because many prisoners could not turn the crank as required, a straight jacket was introduced. The prisoner was put in this and strapped to the wall of his cell in a standing position for up to four to six hours. This punishment was chiefly used on boys. If they fainted, a bucket of water was thrown over them.

The straightjacket was used on children as young as ten were.
Solitary confinement and food restrictions

If a child misbehaved whilst in prison, they were punished by being put on a diet of bread and water.

They were sometimes put in solitary confinement. For continued misdemeanours, they were put in a dark cell with hardly any furniture and totally without light.
Birmingham Children's Court
Birmingham Children's Court

Parkhurst Prison

Parkhurst prison on the Isle of Wight was opened in 1838. It had a wing for young offenders, but only those boys who had been sentenced to transportation to the colonial prisons were sent there.
The boys were given an education, taught a trade and some effort was made to teach them right from wrong. After learning a trade that would be useful in later life, they were sent to Australia to complete their sentence.

In 1848, a correspondent wrote to The Times citing the case of an eight-year old boy who had been sent to Parkhurst. This person thought that it was wrong that the courts had only two options for this young boy. They could either put him to hard labour in prison or sentence him to transportation. However, life was not easy in the prison, especially if the young prisoner did not conform to all the rules. Here is a list of the punishments meted out during one year – ‘165 whippings, 44 confinements in the black-hole, 614 solitary confinements with bread and water, 3,248 bread and water for single meals without confinement and 35 in the penal class. (8)’
Reform

There were many people who thought that prison was not the answer and certainly, that children should not be treated in the same way as adults. They needed to be given an education and taught a trade and helped to earn their living honestly, otherwise they had no option but to go back to their old ways as soon as they were released.

Children getting involved in crime after leaving children’s homes was a big concern for organisations that ran such homes. That was one of the reasons the Waifs and Strays Society took to care to ensure that children had training, education and were given assistance in getting employment when they left its care.5

Research Notes

  • Research note 01: we can write to the cemetery trust to ask about burial details.
Background information on 'ship' Thomas Arbuthnot - from Wikipedia - The ship Thomas Arbuthnot was a fast sailing ship, weighing 523 tons (using old measurements), 621 tons (using new measurements). She carried the first Australian gold from Australia to England 1851.
* Believed to be named after and owned by Thomas Arbuthnot of Meethill (1792-1872), merchant, shipowner and (Provost of Peterhead).

History

* Owners: Arbuthnot (sic).
* Port of Registry: Peterhead.
* Constructed 1841 in Aberdeen.
* She departed Greenock 17 June 1841 and arrived Port Phillip, Melbourne 2 October 1841 (the master was Brown). One of the emigrants disembarking was William Lauder Guild (1814 - 1863), a grandson of Dr. Colin Lauder, FRCS (Edinburgh).
* She cleared from Melbourne 9 November 1841 for Calcutta (master was Brown).
* Some repairs in 1842.
* New keel and further repairs 1844.
* In 1845 the ship was sheathed in yellow metal.
* In 1847 she was surveyed in London; the master was Captain J Smith. She sailed for Madras.
* She sailed from Portland 10 January 1847 to Victoria 4 May 1847 (the master was John Thomson). At the Isle of Wight, she took on 89 Parkhurst apprentices who were among the 288 male convicts/exiles who were sentenced to transportation and were discharged in Williamstown on the day they arrived.
* She arrived Botany Bay, Sydney 17 January 1849
* She sailed from Plymouth 28 October 1849 to Botany Bay, Sydney 3 February 1850 (master was G H Heaton). Surgeon-Superintendent, Charles Edward Strutt, and Sir Arthur Hodgson both kept diaries. Many of the girls, who had been brought to Australia under the scheme for female immigration by Caroline Chisholm, married and settled at Yass and Gundagai, New South Wales. [4] [5] [6]
* She sailed Sydney (24 Sept 1850) to Gravesend.
* Letter in "The Times" 10 Sept 1851 describing the problems bringing the first gold to England (Captain G H Heaton).
* She sailed in ballast Sydney (1 July 1852) to Guam (the master was Banatyne, weight 621 tons).
* She sailed from Plymouth (9 June 1855) to Port Adelaide, South Australia, arriving 12 September 1855 (Captain R Martin), surgeon J O'Donnell. 2 births 0 death, 252 emigrants.


Background information on Parkhurst Boys - Henry has been described as a Parkhurst Boy. Parkhouse was a prison on the Isle of Wight where the very young were interned.

Parkhurst Boys 1842-1862      

Although not officially classed as convicts, a group of convict boys called the Parkhurst Boys were sent to Western Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Victoria and even to Norfolk Island. They had been rehabilitated at Parkhurst Prison and were transported under a similar arrangement to the exiles who began to arrive a few years later. The aim was to apprentice them to local settlers.

In the ten years between 1842 and 1852, just fewer than 1499 boys aged from twelve to eighteen were transported to Australia and New Zealand from Britain's Parkhurst Prison. Parkhurst was designed especially for boys and was built on the Isle of Wight. On December 26, 1838, Robert Woollcombe, the prison governor, arrived at Parkhurst with a team of taskmasters and the first 102 boys.

The prison was enlarged and extended during its time as a juvenile prison and until that time on March 30, 1864, the boys did much of the work as part of their training in carpentry, stonework and ironwork. In all, 4088 boys passed through the Parkhurst system.

Ironically, 1838 also saw a British Parliamentary Committee hand down a report claiming that 'transportation was no deterrent for crime' and with free settlers in Australia beginning to object to the arrival of convicts, new practices were put in place at Parkhurst. It was to train its boys and elevate them to a higher standard than those held in other prisons such as Millbank and Pentonville.

All the above comes from a web site. This site has much more information and I urge you to have a look - http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/.6

Children of Henry Patterson and Ann Sloan

Citations

  1. BDM, British Isles Vital Record CD, PATTERSON, Henry     Christening
         Gender:     Male
         Christening Date:     21 Mar 1829     Recorded in:     Yarmouth, Norfolk, England
                   Collection:     St Nicholas
         Father:     Jonathan PATTERSON
         Mother:     Mary
    Source:     FHL Film 1526328     Dates:     1769 - 1833.
  2. Copies of original certificates and docs.
  3. Free UK BDM index from 1837, online http://freebmd.rootsweb.com, Name:      Jonathan Patterson
    Year of Registration:      1849
    Quarter of Registration:      Apr-May-Jun
    District:      Yarmouth (1837-1924)
    County:      Norfolk
    Volume:      13
    Page:      286.
  4. Digger - Vic BMD Digger databases on CD, Surname: PATTERSON
    Given Names: Henry
    Event: M
    Spouse Surname/Father: SLOANE
    Spouse Gvn Names/Mother: Ann
    Age:
    Sex: M
    Birth Place:
    Death Place:
    Year: 1851
    Reg Number: 2679
    Denomination: PRESBYTERIAN
    Parish: MELBOURNE & GEELONG
    Fiche: 805.

         
  5. Website Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com) "Bullent crane_family_tree (Owner: mick856)."
  6. Misc web sites, online see Citation Detail, http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/